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今夜色暗无月光,独座窗前绣诗行。 字字推敲细细琢,咏不成歌睡不香。 手举青衫骨格骄,双唇自画野蛮腰。 心红胆大莺啼梦,脚拿虬髯我是猫。 湖头随晚笑,柳向客船行。故事春梅树,枝条陌上鲸。快眼思家国,飞鸿晓雾名。千秋风雅颂,直视好男生。 (原创文章皆为本人作品,具有无可置疑的版权,仅供交流,请勿侵权,多谢合作!本博客不参与任何圈子的期刊、杂志有奖竞赛、有奖评比。这个博客是我的官方博客,官方就是我,我就是官方。任何人不得抄袭!)

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The word daily:heavy snowfall  

2016-12-06 16:15:19|  分类: 每日一词 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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        heavy snowfall:暴风雪

        (编辑:山人)

        暴风雪(heavy snowfall)是一种大自然(nature)形成的气候灾害(climatic scourge)。暴风雪指的是-5℃以下大雪(heavy snow)水量(water yield)天气(weather)的统称(be called by a joint name),且伴有强烈(mightiness)的冷空气(cold air)气流(airflow),形成的大而急的风雪(blizzard)。暴风雪的形成与暴风雨(rainstorm)相似(similarity),在冬天(on winter day),当云中的温度变得很低时,使云中的小水滴(droplet)结冻,当这些结冻(freeze)的小水滴撞到其他的小水滴时,这些小水滴就变成了雪;当它们变成雪之后(After them into the snow),它们会继续与其他小水滴或雪相撞(collision);当这些雪变得太大时,它们就会往下落。大多数雪是无害的,但当风速(wind speed)达到每小时56千米(56 km per hour),温度降到-5℃以下,并有大量的雪时,暴风雪便形成了(the storm was formed)。

        雪跟雨不一样(The snow is not the same as the rain),作为液体(as a liquid),雨是流动的(the rain is flowing),而且不能被压缩(and can not be compressed),如果用力挤压水(If the extrusion force of water),它的量是不会改变的(don't change it quantity)。在空旷的地面(In the open ground),如果没有任何东西遮掩(If nothing to cover),1英寸(25毫米)的降雨在哪里都是一样的。雪则不会流动,它落地后开始堆积(heap up),风又把它吹到特定的地方(the wind and blow it to a specific place),所以一些地方的积雪就比别的地方要厚。所有的雪并非相同,湿润的雪呈薄片状(wet snow as thin sheet),比(than)干燥的(arid)粉末状(in powder form)的雪要占据更多的空间。因为其颗粒之间的空隙,雪可以被压缩(snow can be compressed)。

        风引起飞雪漫舞(snow dances),但并不是风的威力(force)给我们带来了麻烦(trouble),而是风带来的雪的数量使我们望而生畏(awe),尽管两者密不可分。强大的风可以把雪从地面上举起来,把它们交到正在降落的雪的队伍中,这就是水牛城(Buffalo, New York)曾经发生过的事情。1977年7月下旬的一场暴风雪,袭击了美国水牛城和纽约周围的地区;水牛城正好位于美国五大湖东部的雪带上,在大多数的冬季,几英尺的雪是司空见惯(commonplace)的事情,然而,1977年的暴风雪比这还要糟糕,从加拿大来的湿润的风(humid wind)已经以70MPH(113km/h)的速度吹了五天了,在早几天降下的3英尺(0.9米)的雪上又堆积了4英尺(1.2米)的雪,大风把堆积在Erie( 伊利湖(北美五大湖之一))湖冰面上的积雪卷起,然后倾倒(topple and fall)在水牛城中,有的地方飘来的积雪(snows)达到了30英尺(9米)厚。

        CREATING AN INDOOR BLIZZARD
        如何创建一个室内暴风雪的场景
        
        电影摄影师梅丽莎·富勒(Melissa Fuller)准备在《北极探险家》这部影片中构造一个暴风雪的室内场景 ,他对这个拍摄研究了很长时间,也没有找到一种平台能够做到这一点;最后,他为了电影项目筹集资金,到一个小摄影棚去参观了一次,在现场创作了一些肖像的拍摄工作,将实际创作图像的过程有滋有味地展现给了他的学生们。下面是他们团队的感想:  

The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
 Photo by Melissa Fuller

The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
 Photo by Melissa Fuller

The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
 Photo by Melissa Fuller

The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
 Photo by Melissa Fuller

The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
 Photo by Melissa Fuller

The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
 Photo by Melissa Fuller

Camera: Mamiya 645DF with P65+ Digital back

Lens: 80mm f/2.8 lens

Light Heads: Five Profoto ProB Heads

Power source: Three Profoto 8a 1200 Air Power Packs

Main Light: One 74″ Elinchrom Octa Light Bank

Backlight: Two White Beauty Dishes with 25 Degree Honeycomb Grids

Background lights (lights hitting backdrop): Two 41″ White Profoto Umbrellas

Backdrop: Broderson Hand Painted Backdrop

Haze Machine: American DJ Haze Generator

Snow Machine: American Dj Snow Flurry Snow Machine


Creating these portraits in front of a live audience would give my students a taste of how one of my shoots work step by step, but also give me the opportunity to create images I can use in my actual portfolio. I had everything I needed at my disposal- a large space to work in (verrrry tricky to find in NYC), and studio lights, and interesting subjects volunteering their time. Photographing something I was excited about allowed me to be a better instructor because I was shooting something I truly cared about executing to the best of my ability.

I call these kind of shoots “test shoots” because they aren’t commissioned by any clients. They have one main goal – to push my portfolio further towards the style of photography I want to be hired for. It’s important for me to keep creating new work that isn’t the same as the work I’ve been hired to create in the past, because if I’m only shooting the same kind of stuff over and over, it’s very unlikely that I will be hired to shoot anything else. Over time, if you aren’t proving that you are capable of shooting other things, you might find yourself stuck in a bit of a rut, never really photographing anything new. I like to keep things fresh and progressing forward. It keeps me sane.

Now, because I decided to create this series in an educational workshop setting, it wouldn’t make sense for me to shoot on location, or even outdoors at all. (I can just imagine bringing 20 enthusiastic students out into a blizzard for a day or two!) Since we weren’t shooting on location and we were fabricating a scene from scratch, we needed to have complete control over the environment. We also needed to be in a comfortable environment in which I could explain every step to the students and pause for questions.

Although it appears to be an elaborate setup, when you break it down step by step, you can see that it’s actually quite simple. The camera is great at lying, especially in close-ups where you only see a small part of the scene. Let’s deconstruct this image first by noting the props that are used, and then later I will explain the lighting.

Each element was carefully fabricated to achieve a sort of visual cohesion throughout each layer of the photo. The subject stands in front of a hand-painted background from Broderson Backdrops resembling a stormy sky. I’m a big fan of getting things right in camera- this is not something I want to add in post later. With this background thrown out of focus, it doesn’t look that different from actually shooting outdoors.

The snow is also a real effect shot in camera. It is created from a American Dj Snow Flurry Snow Machine, which blasts out soap suds that resemble snow, especially when thrown out of focus. I made sure the “snow” was not only falling directly on the subject, but also covering a wide area from behind the model all the way up to my camera lens for a realistic depth of field. After all- in real life the snow would be falling both in front of the camera, and behind. I was surprised to find out after my shoots that these snow machines are actually quite cheap… In fact, at $108.98 on Amazon, it would have actually been cheaper to buy the machine than to rent it for just two days.

Another special effect used in these photos is the haze from a haze machine. This atmospheric layer of fog added a little bit more depth to the background, and allowed us to see some flare from the backlights, as if the sun were caught in the blizzard’s drift. Because the haze likes to come out of the machine a bit directional, I had what I like to call “waft man” fanning the haze so it would spread evenly throughout the set. I made a poor student do this at each workshop, and I’m sure their arms ached the next day.

I like to light in layers and be able to control each source individually. Let’s start with the main light – a large 74” Elinchrom Octabank modifier being fitted to a Profoto head and pack. In some of these photos, a Profoto-equivalent octabank was used, but I much prefer the quality of light from the Elinchrom.

Next, there are two white beauty dishes as backlights which light the subject and falling snow from behind with a soft, wrapping light. Rather than have the two beauty dishes set at an equal strength, I preferred to have one slightly brighter than the other. This added to the realism and motivated more as one sun coming from one side. I imagined the sun trying to peak through the layers of falling snow, and being diffused.

Finally, there are two white umbrellas turned on to the painted backdrop, set at the same strength. These are there to light the background evenly, and were plugged into their own individual power supply. This way, I could increase or decrease the exposure of the storm clouds in the background based on preference.

The subtle balance between these different lights and special effects is what truly counts. If the background gets too dark, it will not match the foreground, and vice-versa. When we brought together all these different elements in camera, it left me with very little photoshopping to do.


The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
Photo by Melissa Fuller


The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
Photo by Melissa Fuller

 

As I shot, I had to keep an eye on the technical aspects, but more importantly, I had to make sure my subjects had engaging expressions. By posing them dramatically to look as if they were moving or looking for something, I was able to achieve a more dynamic image. 

The make-up was slightly different with each subject and got a little more complicated as each workshop progressed. Our first subject, Henry, didn’t have any makeup. The only “snow” on his coat came from turning him towards the snow machine before shooting, and then having him stand back in place. Summer Rayne Oakes, our second subject, had her makeup done to look like she was a little more weathered, but still, no “snow” other than what came from the snow machine. For our third setup with Brett and Terra at creativeLIVE, we got a little more advanced with the makeup and visual effects by adding some “ice” to the face, and some finer snow particles to the jacket. 


The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
Photo by Melissa Fuller


The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
Photo by Melissa Fuller


The word daily:heavy snowfall - 山人 - 郭晔菲的原创博客
Photo by Melissa Fuller

        Photographing this in front of a live audience was a daunting task. Sometimes things don’t look as good as you envision them at first. You have to tweak and tweak and teak until you finally achieve what you set out to do. I think the most interesting parts of the shoot to the students of the workshop were actually where I failed at first, and overcame the mistakes step by step. Since I had a clear vision of the final image in my head, full control over the set, and knew what each light was doing, it was very easy to progress from the messy test shots and create the image I had imagined. Normally in photo shoots my process is very mental. Here, because it was a educational environment, I had to stop and explain things along the way. This was a very interesting exercise for me, and I’d certainly consider doing it again in the future.










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